Where did the earliest Humans move to?


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I’m awake, I’m awake. Oh hey Louise, hey Clark. Oh and hey smarty pants. What’s up? Not you, until now. Oh sorry, I was up late. There was an owl that kept hooting all night. I must have slept through it.

Anyway, we’re fixing to get going soon. The sun’s rising over them hills on yonder. It’s time to break camp. Oh, without breakfast? There’s some stew on the campfire. Breakfast stew? Campfire? Hooting owls.

Wait a second. I live in the city. Look out the window. Okay, that’s enough. Forget about that. We gotta get going. Going? Going where? Out yonder. To a new home and a new life. To a place where we can be free of oppressive traffic.

Right, right, right. That’s enough. It’s the human tradition. We’re gonna migrate. Migrate? Migrate? Smarty Pants, do you know what the word migrate means? Why it means to move or relocate from one habitat or region to another.

Like from the city, to the wilderness, or vice versa. So, um, where to? More like. migrate when to. You see, Louise and I, we realize this beautiful world’s been mostly settled, except for Antarctica and I’m allergic to penguins.

But we’s been thinking, maybe we’d like to settle in a different time. A time when there ain’t so many folks and there’s no migration. Wait, a time of no migration? Smarty Pants, when do you think people started moving from one place to another?

And how did humans end up all over the world? And where will humans migrate to next? Get ready to get a move on with another whiff of history and science on… Hey, Smarty Pants, I’m on the move with my friends Louise and Clark.

They’re looking to migrate to a new location like many others before and after them. But just how long do you suppose people have been on the move? A, since the age of exploration which started in the 1400s.

B, since the start of the ancient Roman Empire. Or C, ever since humans first existed. The answer, of course, is C. People live in every part of the world because of migration. Smarty Pants, there’s a good chance your own family migrated at one point.

And like we said earlier, migration is a move from one place to another. So if your family ever moved into a new home, you migrated. People can migrate into neighborhoods, communities, states or provinces, countries and even continents.

Whoa. But how many have migrated into a different time? like me and Clark. Uh, I don’t think anyone’s ever done that. Until now. Come on, trusty. Let’s go to the start. Well, this is Who Smarted so we can do anything.

Okay, but first, smarty pants, where do you suppose human migration began? To answer that, you must know where scientists believe humans began. So is that in Asia, Africa, Europe, or in the Americas?

If you said Africa, you’re right. The earliest known fossils of modern humans, known as Homo sapiens, are believed to be around 200 ,000 years old and were discovered in Ethiopia. I say we make this time our home.

I like it. What I want to know is why anyone would want to leave this place. Look at those mountains. And that waterfall. Smarty pants, think. What are two reasons people may have moved from one location to another?

Let’s see if you can figure it out from these not -very -subtle clues. Oh, my gah, my hungry! Me need food! Oh, hello! Well, we have some delicious leftover breakfast stew. Ooh, breakfast stew! Me no know what that means, but willing to try!

Brrrr! Brrrr! Ooh! Not bad at all! Me want more! Uh, no. Sorry. That’s the last of it. So, my new cave person pal, what do you do for food around here? Me hunt, me fish, me pick fruit and berry, but no more.

Thanks to my big family. Oh, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, no, Grog eat all fish. Zord, pick all berry. Oog, eat all hogs. Ugh, bad oog, too many people, not enough food.

Say, Clark, I’m starting to think there won’t be enough grub here for us. Good point, low wiggies. So caveman, what are you gonna do? Why, me move to new place, perhaps with a view, far away from oog.

Okay, smarty pants, so tell me, what’s a major factor that drives people to migrate? Why, of course, food. And another factor is space. No, not outer space, I mean living space. When too many people occupy an area, food becomes scarce and life becomes difficult, especially since diseases can also spread in a large crowd.

So that’s why early humans started migrating. The question is, where do you think they went? Asia? How about Australia? Me go to that rock, where? Over there. Oh That’s right. The earliest migrants didn’t go very far at all just a few miles or kilometers away but their children moved a little bit farther and their children’s children moved a little farther than that and After tens of thousands of years these little movements eventually led humans out of Africa and into modern -day Europe Asia and a little later Australia nice high -five Smarty pants true or false Early migrants had no problem walking to Australia because all of the continents were pushed together back then the answer is false While the early dinosaurs roamed one supercontinent By the time humans came around the continents had already separated and drifted to pretty much where they are now Now that doesn’t make any sense Hey, did these early people cross oceans with fancy boats or something?

Nope. Smarty Pants, do you know? Here’s a hint. Brr, it suddenly got cold around here. Oh, yeah, I wish I had a fire going. Smarty Pants, why is it colder here? Is it A, early humans develop air conditioning, B, migrations usually happen in winter, or C, an ice age was forming?

The answer is C. Tens of thousands of years ago, as the world’s temperature fell, polar glaciers collected water as they expanded. Global sea levels dropped, creating land bridges between places that are now separated by water.

Scientists believe land bridges and low sea levels that were easy to cross helped early humans travel to Australia about 50 ,000 years ago. And a land bridge between modern -day Russia and Alaska helped people migrate from Asia to the Americas about 30 ,000 to 15 ,000 years ago.

Got it. So about 15 ,000 years ago, there were people living on every continent. Except one. Smarty Pants, do you know which continent that was and is? If you said Antarctica, great job. With that in mind, Smarty Pants, can you guess another reason why people might migrate?

I can. The weather. That’s right, Clark. Falling and rising temperatures can cause floods, droughts, and other conditions that affect food supply and way of life. And this is a major concern today with climate change, as some areas that were once good for farming and living might soon become too dry.

And when people can’t live in a certain place because of the climate, they move. Any chance we can migrate out of here? You got it. that right Louise maybe we don’t want to live with the first migrants good idea let’s head to the largest migration in history smarty pants any idea when that happened well the answer is coming right up after this quick break and a word from our sponsors hi trustee here with a special message for all the parents and guardians listening I know how important it is for your child to excel in every way possible especially when it comes to education well thanks to my friends at I Excel you don’t have to go it alone I excel is a personalized learning platform that’s transforming the way children master everything from math to social studies I excels interactive courses and immediate feedback ensure learning is super engaging and accessible for every student pre -k through 12th grade imagine that a tool that grows with your child, offering personalized recommendations based on their progress.

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Was it A in ancient times during the Roman Empire, B from the 1400s to the 1600s during the age of exploration, or C in the 1800s during the industrial age? You know, I think about the Roman Empire all the time.

I bet it’s that. Well, the Roman Empire did play a role in human migration because when empires expand, they send their own citizens to live in far away places. This type of migration is called Colonization.

Various powers have colonized over the course of history, including the Romans, Greeks, Chinese, Spanish, Turks, and the British. But colonization did not cause the largest migration. That leaves the Age of Exploration or the Industrial Age.

Here’s a hint. We’re on a boat. It must be the Age of Exploration. Morning, lads and lads. Where’s the crack? Uh, where’s the what? Oh, hadn’t you seen us before? I was wondering where you’re heading once we arrive in the States.

Well, we don’t know yet. Wait a second, Trustee. This isn’t the Age of Exploration, is it? Nope. What gave it away? This here fella said the States in the United States was in a round in the 1600s. We must be in the 1800s.

That’s right. smarty pants were you able to figure that out too the answer is C the so -called great Atlantic migration between Europe and North America started in the 1800s and was the largest migration in history between 1820 and 1980 some 37 million Europeans found a new home in the United States say why are you migrating well right now there’s a terrible famine in my home of Ireland other parts of Europe too in the United States there’s plenty of food and jobs and smarty pants that’s another reason why people migrate for money since the industrial revolution places that offered jobs became more attractive than farmland since people now bought their food new technology led to new factories and that attracted thousands of workers that’s how cities grew to be as large as they are today i always wanted to live in the big city okay smarty pants now you know that human migration is as old as the human race itself and is still going strong can you guess how many people today are settled in a country that’s not the one they were born in is it 281 million people 62 million people or 593 000 people the answer is about 281 million people they’re what’s known as international migrants and they make up over three percent of the world’s population but sadly not everyone chooses to be a migrant oh what are you getting at trusty some folks are home yes while some people leave home to escape harsh rules rulers sometimes the rulers force people to leave smarty pants can you think of some instances when that happened well one particularly awful moment in human history is the slave trade from the 1500s to the 1800s as many as 20 million people were forced to leave Africa and move to the Americas, where they were sold as property and treated beyond inhumanely.

War has also forced many people to migrate. During World War II, up to 8 million people were forced out of Germany, and in the Soviet Union, 10 million people were told to leave their homes. When India became independent and split with what is now Pakistan, violence there caused more than 14 million people to migrate.

And today, multiple conflicts in the Middle East have forced millions more to leave home. Wow. Seems like a lot of people migrate because of bad things happening. Or because they run out of food or space.

Very true. But there are also positive reasons for human migration. Oh yeah? Like what? Smarty Pants, can you think of any? I heard some of you mention the spirit of adventure, curiosity, or discovering new things.

Humans have always wondered what lies beyond what we can see. These days, much of our planet has been explored. But if you look up, you’ll see a whole universe of places we have yet to visit. And thanks to our always improving technology, it’s only a matter of time before humans start migrating to space.

Whoa, Moonbase Alpha is great. We found our new home, Louise. Definitely, Clark. Trusty, you gonna stay here with us? Uh, you two woke me up pretty early. I think I’m just gonna migrate back to bed. A big shout out to Andre in Plainville, Massachusetts, who said, I love Who’s Smarted because the trusty narrator’s funny.

Well, let me just say, I think you have excellent taste in comedy, narrators, and podcasts, Andre. Thanks for smarting with us. This episode, Human Migration, was written by Wild Dave Bodry and voiced by Jina, Likes to Hike, Hoban, Sheffield, Out on the Plains, Chestaine, and Jerry Colbert.

Technical Direction and Sound Design by Josh Hahn. Our associate producer is migrating Max Kamaski. The theme song is by Brian Suarez with lyrics written and performed by Adam Tex Davis. Who’s Smarted was created and produced by Adam Tex Davis and Jerry Colbert.

This has been an Atomic Entertainment production.